Wednesday, August 5, 2020

PTSD and Fear of Public Speaking

PTSD and Fear of Public Speaking PTSD Coping Print PTSD and Fear of Public Speaking By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 24, 2019 Sean Warren/E/Getty Images More in PTSD Coping Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Related Conditions PTSD and the Military Many people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  have a fear of speaking in public. This is a form of  social anxiety. These fears can have a tremendous impact on a persons level of success at work or at school. Someone with a fear of public speaking may avoid jobs, classes or situations where they have to present in front of other people. But you can overcome these fears, even if you are also dealing with PTSD. People who fear public speaking often beat themselves up over these fears. However, if you fear public speaking, its important to remember that these fears make sense. When youre speaking in front of a crowd, youre vulnerable. This can be very frightening for someone with PTSD. In addition, you may be afraid that people will evaluate you negatively. You may even fear a positive evaluation  because if people think you did a good job, they might expect that youll always perform at that level. You fear that a new standard has been set that will be difficult to keep up. Tips for Public Speaking With PTSD Fortunately, you can learn to overcome your fears. Here are some tips for people dealing with PTSD and  fears  of public speaking. This advice can help you better manage your anxiety over public speaking, as well as improve your confidence when you are speaking in front of others. Recognize and validate your anxiety.  Anxiety is normal when people engage in public speaking. Accepting the anxiety and being willing to experience it will prevent it from growing and potentially interfering with your presentation. “Willing” yourself to relax or trying to push the anxiety down will only distract you and increase your anxious arousal. Remember, no one in the audience knows how youre feeling on the inside.Breathe. Before you begin talking, take some time to focus your attention on your breathing. This can reduce your anxiety and keep you focused before you present.Release muscle tension. Don’t clench your fists or lock your knees. Use hand gestures.  If you notice that youre tensing up, move around. Movement also helps with breathing.Focus on your message, not your body.  When people are speaking in public, they often focus on their internal sensations or whether theyre blushing, shaking, etc. When were speaking in public, small body movements or small changes i n our body are intensified. What might feel like a great amount of trembling or shaking to us is likely unnoticeable or minor to our audience.  The more we focus on these experiences, the stronger they will get and the more our anxiety will interfere with our message.Practice. Obviously, practice is important when giving a speech. However, people often practice in the wrong way. People often practice speeches by going through exactly what they want to say, almost to the point of memorizing the presentation. This is setting you up to fail. During the speech, if you deviate from what you practiced or memorized, you might become derailed, causing your anxiety to spike. Practice going through concepts, not words. Become familiar with the main points you want the audience to take home. These main points can be delivered in a number of different ways.Have water available. This can help with dry mouth, but it also gives you an opportunity to take a breath if you need to during your speech. Avoid caffeine or sugary liquids.Plan breaks in your presentation. Ask if anyone has any questions. Even if no one has any questions, this gives you the opportunity to breathe and collect your thoughts. You can also direct questions to people in the audience as a way of giving yourself a break.Try to avoid using notes. When there is too much on a note card, people often rely too heavily on them and lose their connection with the audience. If you use note cards, just include brief bullet points.Act confident. Speak with conviction and act confident even if you don’t feel that way. Your emotions will eventually catch up with how youre presenting.Maintain sincere eye contact with different members of the audience. If youre in a large room, it can help to break the room up into sections and direct your eyes to these different areas of the room through the presentation.Be flexible with your attention. When giving a presentation, its normal to lock attention on someone who is providing negative facial feedback. Its also normal to interpret this as an indication that were not being successful in delivering our message. In truth, we have no idea as to what that individual is responding to. Have a more expansive awareness of the room. Notice people who are also providing positive facial feedback.Be mindful when you start a presentation. People sometimes become overwhelmed when they start a presentation because they feel as though they have so much to get through. Focus your attention on the present and effectively delivering your message for each part of your presentation.Plan ahead. If there is a possibility that you could be short on time, plan ahead what can be cut out. Also, decide in advance how you can respond to questions that may be asked, especially questions that you dont know how to answer.Be familiar with your location. If youre unfamiliar with where you are giving a presentation, try to arrive early to get a lay of the land. The more familiar you are wi th the location, the less unprepared you will feel.Practice self-care. Eat well that day. Get enough sleep the night before. And, again, limit caffeine. The Importance of Practice Public speaking fears can be difficult to overcome, especially if you have PTSD. Therefore, dont expect these tips to bring about an immediate reduction in your anxiety. They require repeated practice. It may also be useful to start out with short presentations in front of people you feel comfortable with. Try to practice these tips when you feel less anxious. That way, you can become more comfortable with using them. Although you may not get relief immediately, with repeated practice and exposure to public speaking, your fears can be overcome.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay about Womens Role In The Economy - 1548 Words

Womens Role In The Economy â€Å"The Transfer of Women’s Work from the Home to the Market† â€Å"The transfer of women’s work from the household to commercial employment is one of the most notable features of economic development† (Lewis, Historical Perspectives on the American Economy P. 550). In colonial America there was a distinct sexual division of labor. Men were property owners and heads of households. A man’s responsibilities included staple crop farming, hunting, and skilled craftsmanship in order to produce commodities for market (An Economic History of Women in America Pp. 30-33). Women were responsible for a variety of different jobs. In the home and the fields women ensured the survival of the family. They were†¦show more content†¦547) Goldin takes the life cycle approach to understanding change in the economic role of married women. A change in one part of a woman’s life cycle can effect her employment in another. In taking this approach Goldin focused on three important factors that have effected the long-term changes in the economic role of white married women. One of these factors is cohort specific effects. Goldin defines cohort specific effects as primarily predetermined effects such as education and fertility. Cohort specific effects are the most important factors that influenced how and at what point in a woman’s life cycle she participated in the labor force. Each cohort has been influenced in its decision to participate in the work force both by economic and social conditions at a particular date. Aspects of early socialization and training carried with it through time have also affected the cohorts. For every cohort born since 1855 participation in the labor force had increased within marriage, at least until age 55. There are numerous factors that have had influence over the entrance of women in the labor market. These factors are the reason for the differentiation of one cohort’s work history from another. Of these numerous factors, three relate to each cohort’s earlyShow MoreRelated The Evolving Roles of Women in the Economies of Greece and Italy2002 Words   |  9 PagesThe Evolving Roles of Women in the Economies of Greece and Italy The role of women in Greek and Italian culture has come a long way since the ancient days. In patriarchal societies, women were restricted to household chores, and were allowed little to no involvement in politics or economic matters. Since these times, major cultural shifts in each of the countries have helped lead the nations to a more western perception of sex roles in their cultures. In the following paragraphs, we willRead MoreEffects Of Economics And Sexuality On Women s Life1376 Words   |  6 Pagessexuality have to do with a women during the time period of 1750-1950.Thus during this large time period much has happened to the economy as well as the life style of a women. Therefore, these two topics play a big role within each other that affected women during this time period. Thus this leads to the subtopics that will be discussed to show that economics and sexuality does go hand and hand. The two subtopics that will demonstrate the effects are the industrial economy, a nd prostitution. These twoRead MoreWretched of the Earth Essay1165 Words   |  5 PagesFanon explores the roles of violence, class, and political organization in the process of decolonization. Within a Marxist framework, Fanon theorizes and prophesizes the successes and failures of independence movements within colonized nations. 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Many sectors have suggestedRead MoreInformation And Communications Technologies ( Icts )1508 Words   |  7 PagesICT industry could be seen as one of the top sectors in the country for graduate women employment in terms of creating high quality jobs it can enforce the strength empowering the rural women in deed. As caregivers, communicators and providers women play a major role in the society. Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) help to co-ordinate some aspects of rural women’s life in developing states. As the women education rate job participation is growing gradually in Bangladesh, women’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Developmental Psychology and Young Children Free Essays

Tawny Lace Please answer all the questions below using your preferred method from voice recording, written assignments or via oral questions with Kerry Banitas. Please reflect on own experience to support your knowledge. . We will write a custom essay sample on Developmental Psychology and Young Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now For your information – all guidance notes are at the end of the questions. 1. 1. Explain the pattern of development in the first three years of life and the skills typically acquired at each stage.. | 1. 2. Explain: ? how development and learning are interconnected, ? how and why variations occur in rate and sequence of development and learning ; ? hat learning may take place in different ways; ? the importance of play. | 1. 3. Explain the potential effects on development, of preconceptual, pre-birth and birth experiences. | 1. 4. Explain the impact of current research into the development and learning of babies and young children.. | 3. 1. Explain the benefits of the key worker/person system in early years settings. | 3. 2. Explain how babies and young children learn and develop best from a basis of loving, secure relationships with carers and with key persons in work settings. | 3. 3. Analyse the possible effects of poor quality attachments on the development of babies and children. | 4. 3. Explain how babies express their emotions, preferences and needs and demonstrate responsive care in own practice. | 4. 4. Explain why it is important to manage transitions for babies and young children. | 4. 5. Explain when and why babies and young children require periods of quiet to rest and sleep. | 5. 1. Explain the primary importance of carers in the lives of babies and young children. | 5. 3. Evaluate ways of working in partnership with carers. Guidance notes – Pre-conceptual, pre-birth and birth experiences ondevelopment e. g. 😕 smoking ? alcohol ? maternal ill health ? poor maternal diet ? substance abuse? assisted birth ? birth trauma. Environment e. g. : ? well equipped, clean and safe with age appropriate equipment and materials ? provides appropriate challenge ? offer appropriate levels of sensory stimulation? provide quiet calming spaces for babies a nd young children ? planned and organised around individual needs of babies and young children. Possible effects of poor quality attachments: ? effects on social and emotional development and emotional security ? effects on ability to settle, take risks and makethe most of learning opportunities ? possible effects on short and long term mentalhealth ? effects on relationships with parents and professional carers. Responsive care: ? where carer responding sensitively, consistently and promptly? responses sensitive to individual needs and preferences ? consistency of response? responding promptly| Similar article: How Different Types of Transitions Can Affect Children How to cite Developmental Psychology and Young Children, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Gang Life Essay Research Paper Gang Life free essay sample

Gang Life Essay, Research Paper Gang Life In life, adolescents and grownup? s articulation packs for troubles in their life. They feel that they need a group of people to understand and back up them through the unsmooth phase of their life. In the novel, The Foreigners, by S. E. Hinton Ponyboy is a fourteen-year-old male child who is a portion of the pack called the wetbacks. His whole staying household are wetbacks. Gang life can take to decease and problem. In The Outsiders, Ponyboy is in a pack with all of the people he grew up with in the vicinity, including his two brothers, Sodapop and Darry. In a battle against the sociables, the enemy of the wetbacks, Ponyboy and another member of the wetbacks named Johnny were outnumbered five-two. In order to salvage Ponyboy? s life, Johnny killed a member of the sociables named Bob. This proves that gang life can take to decease. We will write a custom essay sample on Gang Life Essay Research Paper Gang Life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page After Johnny killed Bob, they went to their friend Dally to assist them acquire out of their state of affairs. Dally told them to travel to an old abandoned church on the top of Jay Mountain. Dally told them to remain at that place until he got at that place. On the 5th twenty-four hours Dally got at that place and took them to acquire something to eat. When they got back to the church, the church was on fire. As a crowd gathered around, Ponyboy and Johnny realized that there were kids trapped indoors. They both went in to deliver them. As they made their manner out, a piece of timber caught him across the dorsum and he was burned really severely. Ponyboy didn? t get burned but got knocked out by Dally when he tried to travel back into the fire to salvage Johnny. A twosome of twenty-four hours? s subsequently Johnny vitamin D ied. If Johnny weren? t portion of a pack, he would hold neer killed Bob and he wouldn? Ts have been at the church running off from the constabulary. Equally shortly as Ponyboy got back from the infirmary, a rumble between the wetbacks and the sociables was about to take topographic point. Ponyboy fought despite being hurt and ill. After the wetbacks beat the sociables, Dally and Ponyboy went to the infirmary to state Johnny that they had beaten the sociables. Equally shortly as they told Johnny about the rumble, Johnny died. Dally sprinted out of the room. When Ponyboy got back to his house, the whole pack was waiting for him. A few proceedingss subsequently Dally called and said that he had robbed a food market shop and the bulls were after him. He told them to run into him at the vacant batch. When the pack got at that place, Dally was merely geting. As the bulls pulled out their guns, Dally pulled out a gun that was non loaded as a bluff. The bulls didn? T know that and shot him to decease. If Dally weren? T in a pack, he would hold neer been so affiliated to Johnny. Once Johnny died, that led Dally to his decease because John ny was a like a brother to him. He couldn? t trade with the fact that Johnny had died. When somone is portion of a pack, it increases the hazard of them acquiring hurt, killed, or acquiring in problem. This can besides be proven in mundane life. Thousands of people all over the universe is in some kind of a pack. As a consequence, they fight against each other and people get earnestly hurt or killed. Peoples should neer fall in any sort of pack in their lives for two grounds. They can acquire killed and it will acquire you in problem. the foreigners. s.e. hinton

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Essays

Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Essays Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Paper Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Paper Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Written by Hanif Kureishi, the short story My Son the Fanatic develops through the conflict between a father and his son. In the story, the father Parvez who works as a taxi driver immigrated from Pakistan to England with his family twenty years ago. His son Ali is a college student in England. When Ali was behaving abnormally, Parvez’s suspicion led him to discover that Ali had turned into a religious Muslim. Parvez, although born as a Muslim, does not strictly abide by Islam rules. The father and son are holding different beliefs; hence they could hardly accept each other’s moral values anymore. Because the author told the story in Parvez’s point of view, it might be controversial that between Parvez and Ali, which character is on the right side. However, as the title of the story suggested, Kureishi, the author, clearly wanted to convince the readers that the son Ali is the fanatic, urging the readers to take Parvez’s side. The author Kureishi, by no means, has depicted Parvez a perfect man. Parvez as a character has a lot of shortcomings: as a Muslim, he gambles; he drinks; he eats pork; he makes fun of religion representativethe local mullahs and as a husband, he tries to avoid his wife by driving the night taxi (Kureishi 61, 63). Some may argue that he has not been depicted as a good man or as a good father because those shortcomings, on the contrary, those shortcomings draw him closer to the readers. Parvez as a character had become so similar to somebody whom the readers might have known from their real lifea good man but with imperfections. Therefore, it is imaginable how easily could the readers relate to the character or even his problems in the story. Under Kureishi’s depiction, Parvez might not be a good Muslim, yet his morals were not totally compromised. For example, he saved Bettina, a prostitute from a violent client, he obviously has a clear standard on what’s right or wrong besides what is being told in the Koran (62). The author summed up Parvez well in the story, â€Å"He knew he wasnt a bad man. He had a conscience. There were a few things of which he was ashamed, but on the whole, he had lived a decent life †(64). In addition, Parvez not being a good husband does not stop Kureishi from depicting him as a good father. Parvez, in fact, is a good father indeed and he is proud of himself for being one. â€Å"For years, Parvez had boasted to the other men about how Ali excelled in cricket, swimming, and football, and what an attentive scholar he was, getting A’s in most subjects †(62). He cared for his son and worked hard to provide for him that â€Å" he had always been aware of the pitfalls that other men’s son’s had stumbled into in England. It was for Ali that Parvez worked long hours; he spent a lot of money paying for Ali’s education as an accountant. He had bought Ali good suits, all the books he required, and a computer†(Kureishi 61). He believes a father should be responsible for his son that he â€Å"had blamed other fathers whose sons began running around with bad girls, skipping school, and joining gangs† (Kureishi 61). So when things go abnormal with his own son, he ‘s afraid that he would be blamed for not being a good father (Kureishi 61), and tried to make things right again by closely inspecting his son and repeatedly reaching out to him. Kureishi provides the readers with little information about the son Ali’s personal life, and some of which are negative, so it is more difficult for the readers to relate to the character. For example, at the beginning of the story, the author informed the readers through Parvez’s point of view that Ali had broken up with his English girlfriend, and all his old friends stopped ringing (61). This hardly counts as a positive sign for Ali as a character at the beginning of the story when the author suggests that he is being alienated or starts to alienate others. Apart from that, according to Kureishi, it is Ali who should always be blamed for the tension between the father and son. For example, Ali makes Parvez feel afraid with his silence and sharp tone (61). In the scene when Parvez gazed at Ali, to test if he has been using drugs, Ali replied his gaze with â€Å"more than a hint of criticism, o much so that Parvez began to feel that it was he who was in the wrong, and not the boy† (63). Also, for multiple times in the story, Pavez tried to reach out to Ali in order to talk about their problems, it is always Ali who shows reluctance in communicating with his own father. In the part where Parvez suggested a night out with the son to understand more about his problems, â€Å"Ali refused to accompany him. He claimed that he had an appointment† (Kureishi 63). As the story develops, Parves â€Å"attempted to make conversation about Ali’s beliefs, but if Parvez ventured any criticism, Ali always had a brusque reply †, or replies him with a look of contempt (Kureishi 66). When Parvez attempted to reach out to Ali by taking actions like keeping a beard, Ali, on the other hand, â€Å"did not appear to notice it†(Kureishi 66). Some may argue Ali behaves that way is because Parvez, his father has no respect for Ali’s religion that he constantly challenges Ali’s belief. Somehow Kureishi showed that it is not the case. In fact, Parvez was just trying to convince Ali that there are other beliefs† as Bettina, Parvez’s closest friend suggested (67). However, Ali, in the story, responded to his own father â€Å"with such aggressive confidence that Parvez would say no more†(67). Kureishi depicts Ali as an ungrateful child who has no respect to his own father. From Parvez, the readers heard that Ali told Parvez, his own father that he ‘s going to Hell (66), and Ali looks at Parvez as if he is a criminal (66). Apart from the above, there is more to show about Ali’s disrespectfulness in the story. First, Ali does not appreciate Parvez’s provision; he repays his father’s hard work by â€Å"throwing his possessions out ! † (Kureishi 61). Second, Ali disapproves of his father’s life style. He accused his own father being â€Å"too implicated in Western civilization†(Kureishi 65). He criticize his father harshly based on religion rules, such as suggesting drinking and gambling are forbidden  (Kureishi 64), even after his father patiently explained to him that those were the only hobbies he had after working long hours to provide for him. Ali still gave Parvez â€Å"a horrible look, full of disgust and censure†(Kureishi 64). Third, Ali has no patience for his father’s beliefs. He treats him as â€Å"a rowdy crowd which had to be quelled or convinced† (Kureishi 65). Most importantly, he lost the ability to care for his father’s feelings, in the scene when Parvez fell, Ali â€Å"didn’t even offer him his hand†(Kureishi 66). Moreover, Ali humiliated Parvez’s closest friend Berttina in front of him, bluntly suggesting she is a prostitute by saying â€Å"you know what kind† (Kureishi 68). In conclusion, Kureishi is trying to convince the readers to take Parvez’s side in judging who is right or wrong, he has told the story in Parvez, the father ‘s point of view to build the connection between the character and the readers. By describing the son Ali as the responsible side of the conflict, he has manipulated the readers to sympathize the father Parvez. Moreover, by depicting a slightly flawed character Parvez as a good father who cares and worries about his own son, along with an ungrateful and judgmental son Ali as the fanatic who has no respect to his own father, the author has given the readers a clear choice between the two.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Animal Studies and School Project Ideas

Animal Studies and School Project Ideas Animal projects and studies are important to understanding various biological processes in animals and even humans. Scientists study animals in order to learn ways to improve animal health for farm production, wildlife preservation, and human companionship. They also study animals to discover new methods to improve human health. Animal studies give us a better understanding of disease development and prevention, as well as standards for normal and abnormal behavior. The following animal project ideas introduce areas of animal studies that can be explored through experimentation. Since some science fairs may prohibit projects that involve animals, so be sure to get permission from your instructor before beginning any animal-based science project. Amphibian and Fish Project Ideas Does temperature affect tadpole growth?Do water pH levels affect tadpole growth?Does water temperature affect amphibian respiration?Does magnetism affect limb regeneration in newts?Does water temperature affect fish color?Does the size of a population of fish affect growth?Does music affect fish activity?Does the amount of light affect fish activity? Bird Project Ideas Which types of plants attract hummingbirds?What factors increase egg-laying in birds?Do different bird species prefer a particular color of bird seed?Do certain bird species prefer to eat in a group or alone?Do certain bird species prefer one type of habitat over another? Insect Project Ideas How does temperature affect the growth of butterflies? How does light affect ants?Do different colors attract or repel insects?How does pollution affect insects?How do insects adapt to pesticides?Do magnetic fields affect insects?Does soil acidity affect insects?Does color affect insect-eating habits?Does light or heat attract insects to lamps at night?Do insects behave differently in a larger population as opposed to a smaller population?What factors cause crickets to chirp more often?What substances do mosquitoes find attractive or repellent? Mammal Project Ideas Does light variation alter animal sleep habits?Do cats or dogs have better night vision?Does music affect an animals mood?Do bird sounds affect cat behavior?Which animal sense has the greatest effect on short-term memory?Does animal saliva have antimicrobial properties?Does colored water affect animal drinking habits? Animal Information and Resources For additional information about animals, see: 10 Fascinating Animal Facts: Discover several wondrous and fascinating facts about animalsTen Amazing Bioluminescent Organisms: Some organisms such as jellyfish have the ability to glow. The light emitted is due to a chemical reactionWhy Some Animals Play Dead: When faced with danger, some animals go into a catatonic state and appear to be dead to the world.Top 7 Bugs That Feed on Humans: There are a number of bugs that feed on humans. These bugs are resilient, gaining immunity to insecticides, and out for your blood.Common Animal Questions and Answers: Why do zebras have stripes? Why do some tigers have white coats? Find answers to these and other commonly asked questions about animals.The Worlds Fastest Animals: What are the fastest animals on the planet? These swift animals reach amazing speeds on land, in the air, and in the ocean. Science Experiments and Models Performing science experiments and constructing models are fun and exciting ways to learn about science. Try making a model of the lungs or a DNA model using candy. You can also discover how to extract DNA from a banana or get ideas on how to use plants in experiments.